Sejarah Eiffel Tower

Menara Eiffel bahasa Perancis (Tour Eiffle ) merupakan sebuah menara besi yang di bangun di Champ de Mars di tepi Sungai Seine di Paris. Menara ini telah menjadi ikon global Perancis dan salah satu struktur terkenal di dunia.

Struktur ini di bangun antara 1887 dan 1889 sebagai pintu masuk Exposition Universelle, Pameran Dunia yang bermula seabad Revolusi Perancis. Eiffel sebenarnya di rancang untuk di bnagunkan di Barcelona, untuk Pameran Universal 1888, tapi pihak yang bertanggung jawab di balai Kota Barcelona menganggapnya pelik dan mahal, dan tidak sesuai dengan kota itu. Setelah usul itu di tolak Barcelona, Eiffel hantar drafnya kepada pihak yang bertanggung jawab untuk Pameran Universal di Paris, dimana ia bangunkan tower ini setahun kemudian, iaitu pada tahun 1889. Menara ini dirasmikan pada 31 March 1889, dan dibuka 6 Mei. Tiga ratus pekerja menggabungkan bersama 18.083 bagian besi benam (bentuk murni dari besi struktural), menggunakan dua setengah juta paku, dalam bentuk struktural oleh Maurice Koechelin. Risiko kemalangan sangat besar, untuk pencakar langit moden yang tak biasa menara ini terbuka tanpa tingkat tengah kecuali dua platform. Tetapi kerana Eiffel mengambil sikap hati-hati, termasuk penggunaan takal bergerak, rel bantu dan layar, dan dalam hal ini hanya satu yang meninggal.


Menara ini mendapat berbagai kritik dari masyarakat ketika di bangun, menyebutnya mengganggu mata. Surat khabar harian dipenuhi dengan surat kritik dari pengkomen seni di Paris.
Eiffel mendapat kebenaran berdiri selama 20 tahun, maksudnya harus diruntuhkan tahun 1909, ketika kepemilikannya diserahkan kepada Kota Paris. Kota telah merancang untuk meruntuhkannya (bagian dari peraturan kontes asli untuk merancang menara yang mudah di runtuhkan) tapi setelah menara ini terbukti mendatangkan untung dari segi komunikasi, menara ini dibiarkan berdiri setelah izin tersebut kadaluwarsa. Sebagai contoh, Militer menggunakannya untuk mengatur taksi Paris di garis depan selama Pertempuran Marne Pertama, dan menjadi monomen kemenangan pertempuran itu.

Proses Pembuatan

Dibangun dalam rangka pekan Pameran Dunia dan meraikan Revolusi Perancis, menara dengan bendera berkibar di puncaknya dirasmikan pada  31 March 1889. Meskipun kecaman dan protes yang keras dari penduduk Paris dan kalangan intelektual selama dibangun, kerangka besi ini menjadi simbol kota Paris dan menarik lebih dari 6 juta pengunjung setiap tahun.

Pemimpin Projek : Tuan Gustave Eiffel dibantu oleh, antara lain, para insinyur Maurice Koechlin dan Emile Nouguier serta Stephen Sauvestre sebagai arkitek.

Perancangan projek dimulai tahun 1884. Meskipun semua halangan di atas, pembanguan menara dimulai pada tahun 1887 dan selesai 26 bulan kemudian pada tahun 1889. Telah direncanakan menara ini akan dirobohkan setelah berlangsungnya pekan Pameran Dunia 1900. Akan tetapi, percubaan berhasil dari transmisi radio yang dikendalikan oleh Angkatan Bersenjata Perancis sebelum hari pemugaran akhirnya menyelamatkan menara Eiffel.

Bahan yang digunakan : Besi baja dikaitkan dalam bentuk persilangan dari 18.038 biji yang diperkuat dengan 2.500.000 paku. Kerangka dari idea Tuan Gustave Eiffel ini tahan angin dan walaupun bahannya dari besi, berat menara hanya 7.300 ton.

Tinggi : Dari tanah sampai tiang bendera, tingginya 312.27 meter pada tahun 1889, sekarang 324 meter dengan antenanya. Saat ini, berbagai perusahaan television Perancis memasang antena mereka di puncak Menara Eiffel.

Dimiliki oleh Pemerintah Daerah Paris dan dikelola oleh perusahaan swasta, “Société Nouvelle de l’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel”, kerangka besi ini selenggarakan setiap 7 tahun sekali dan dicat dengan 50 ton cat.

Penerangan : “Gadis Besi” ini diterangi dengan 352 projektor 1.000 watts dan berkedip setiap sengah jam pada malam hari dengan 20.000 bola lampu dan 800 lampu disko.

Untuk membuat menara kelihatannya lebih hidup, 4 lampu laser xenon yang berkekuatan 6.000 watts berputar secara permanen di puncak menara.

Jumlah tangga : 1.665 tangga bagi pengunjung yang sukankan cabaran. Ada 2 buah lift yang naik ke tingkat dua dimana boleh ditemukan berbagai kedai suvenir.

 

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